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Grammar makes language expressive. A language consisting of words and no grammar (statement = word) expresses only as many ideas as there are words. By specifying how words are combined in statements, a grammar expands a language’s scope.

– Wilkinson, 2005, The Grammar of Graphics, 2nd edition

In this chapter, I describe an object-oriented programming system called “the grammar of experimental designs” that is designed to capture elements of the origin of an experimental data encapsulated in a cognitive framework. The grammar of experimental designs is a term that is heavily influenced by Wilkinson (2005), who use the term “grammar of graphics” to describe an object-oriented system to create unlimited number of plots from following a relatively small number of rules. The grammar of graphics is adopted across many systems (Julia, Python, R, Tableau and so on) with its most popular interpretation (H. Wickham 2010) as the ggplot2 R-package (Hadley Wickham 2016). An overview of ggplot2 is given in Chapter 8. The grammar of experimental designs leverage aspects of the grammar of graphics for the visualisation of the experimental designs as discussed more extensively in Chapter 9.

Henceforth, “grammar” refers to the grammar of experimental designs unless explicitly stated otherwise.